LED Light sources for machine vision systems

Machine vision systems often require bright and homogeneous illumination, so features of interest are easier to process. LEDs are often used to this purpose, and this field of application is likely to remain one of the major application areas until price drops low enough to make signaling and illumination applications more widespread. Barcode scanners are the most common example of machine vision, and many inexpensive ones used red LEDs instead of lasers. LEDs constitute a nearly ideal light source for machine vision systems for several reasons: Continue reading “LED Light sources for machine vision systems”

Non-visual applications of LED

Light has many other uses besides for seeing. LEDs are used for some of these applications. The uses fall in three groups: Communication, sensors and light matter interaction.

The light from LEDs can be modulated very fast so they are extensively used in optical fiber and Free Space Optics communications. This include remote controls, such as for TVs and VCRs, where infrared LEDs are often used. Continue reading “Non-visual applications of LED”

Economically sustainable for LED

LED light bulbs could be a cost effective option for lighting a home or office space because of their very long lifetimes, even though they have a much higher purchase price. The high initial cost of the commercial LED bulb is due to the expensive sapphire substrate which is key to the production process. The sapphire apparatus must be coupled with a mirror-like collector to reflect light that would otherwise be wasted. Continue reading “Economically sustainable for LED”

LED Environmentally friendly options

A single kilowatt-hour of electricity will generate 1.34 pounds (610 g) of CO2 emissions.[76] Assuming the average light bulb is on for 10 hours a day, a single 40-watt incandescent bulb will generate 196 pounds (89 kg) of CO2 every year. The 13-watt LED equivalent will only be responsible for 63 pounds (29 kg) of CO2 over the same time span. A building’s carbon footprint from lighting can be reduced by 68% by exchanging all incandescent bulbs for new LEDs. Continue reading “LED Environmentally friendly options”

Indicators and signs of LED

The low energy consumption, low maintenance and small size of modern LEDs has led to applications as status indicators and displays on a variety of equipment and installations. Large area LED displays are used as stadium displays and as dynamic decorative displays. Thin, lightweight message displays are used at airports and railway stations, and as destination displays for trains, buses, trams, and ferries. Continue reading “Indicators and signs of LED”

LED Application-specific variations

Flashing LEDs are used as attention seeking indicators without requiring external electronics. Flashing LEDs resemble standard LEDs but they contain an integrated multivibrator circuit inside which causes the LED to flash with a typical period of one second. In diffused lens LEDs this is visible as a small black dot. Most flashing LEDs emit light of a single color, but more sophisticated devices can flash between multiple colors and even fade through a color sequence using RGB color mixing. Continue reading “LED Application-specific variations”

High power LEDs

High power LEDs (HPLED) can be driven at currents from hundreds of mA to more than an ampere, compared with the tens of mA for other LEDs. They produce up to over a thousand  lumens. Since overheating is destructive, the HPLEDs must be mounted on a heat sink to allow for heat dissipation. If the heat from a HPLED is not removed, the device will burn out in seconds. A single HPLED can often replace an incandescent bulb in a flashlight, or be set in an array to form a powerful LED lamp. Continue reading “High power LEDs”

Phosphor based LEDs

This method involves coating an LED of one color (mostly blue LED made of InGaN) with phosphor of different colors to produce white light, the resultant LEDs are called phosphor based white LEDs. A fraction of the blue light undergoes the Stokes shift being transformed from shorter wavelengths to longer. Depending on the color of the original LED, phosphors of different colors can be employed. If several phosphor layers of distinct colors are applied, the emitted spectrum is broadened, effectively increasing the color rendering index (CRI) value of a given LED. Continue reading “Phosphor based LEDs”

RGB systems of LED

White light can be produced by mixing differently colored light, the most common method is to use red, green and blue (RGB). Hence the method is called multi-colored white LEDs (sometimes referred to as RGB LEDs). Because its mechanism is involved with sophisticated electro-optical design to control the blending and diffusion of different colors, this approach has rarely been used to mass produce white LEDs in the industry. Nevertheless this method is particularly interesting to many researchers and scientists because of the flexibility of mixing different colors. In principle, this mechanism also has higher quantum efficiency in producing white light. Continue reading “RGB systems of LED”

Efficiency and operational parameters of LED

Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30–60 milliwatts [mW] of electrical power. Around 1999, Philips Lumileds introduced power LEDs capable of continuous use at one watt [W]. These LEDs used much larger semiconductor die sizes to handle the large power inputs. Also, the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for heat removal from the LED die. Continue reading “Efficiency and operational parameters of LED”

Physics of LED

Like a normal diode, the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material impregnated, or doped, with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon. Continue reading “Physics of LED”

LED Practical use

The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent indicators, and in seven-segment displays, first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, and even watches (see list of signal applications). Continue reading “LED Practical use”

LED Discoveries and early devices

Electroluminescence was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat’s-whisker detector. Russian Oleg Vladimirovich Losev independently reported on the creation of a LED in 1927. His research was distributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955. Continue reading “LED Discoveries and early devices”

What is LED(Light-emitting diode)?

A light-emitting diode (LED) (pronounced /ˌɛl.iːˈdiː/, or just /lɛd/), is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. Continue reading “What is LED(Light-emitting diode)?”

LED Lamp Research and development

US Department of Energy

In May 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced details of the Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize competition. The L Prize is the first government-sponsored technology competition designed to spur lighting manufacturers to develop high quality, high efficiency solid-state lighting products to replace the common light bulb. The competition will award cash prizes, and may also lead to opportunities for federal purchasing agreements, utility programs, and other incentives for winning products. Continue reading “LED Lamp Research and development”

Comparison LED Lamp to other lighting technologies

* Incandescent lamps (light bulbs) create light by running electricity through a resistive filament, thereby heating the filament to a very high temperature so that it glows and produces visible light. A broad range of visible frequencies are naturally produced, yielding a pleasing warm yellow or white color quality. Incandescent light however, is highly inefficient, as approximately 98% of the energy input is emitted as heat.[3] A 100-watt 120 VAC light bulb produces about 1,700 lumens, about 17 lumens per watt. Incandescent lamps are relatively inexpensive to produce. The typical lifespan of an AC incandescent lamp is around 1,000 hours[4] They work well with dimmers. Most existing light fixtures are designed for the size and shape of these traditional bulbs. Continue reading “Comparison LED Lamp to other lighting technologies”

Using LED lamps on household AC power

A single LED is a low-voltage solid state device and cannot be directly operated on household AC current without some circuit to control current flow through the lamp. A series resistor could be used to limit current, but this is inefficient since most of the applied voltage would be wasted on the resistor. A single series string would minimize dropper losses, but one LED failure would extinguish the whole string. Paralleled strings increase reliability. In practice usually 3 strings or more are used. Continue reading “Using LED lamps on household AC power”

LED Lamp Technology overview

General purpose lighting requires white light. LEDs by nature emit light in a very small band of wavelengths, producing strongly colored light. The color is characteristic of the energy bandgap of the semiconductor material used to make the LED. To create white light from LEDs requires either mixing light from red, green, and blue LEDs, or using a phosphor to convert some of the light to other colors. Continue reading “LED Lamp Technology overview”